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OnLine Genetics Textbook - Quiz
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This is a quiz for the OnLine Genetics Textbook. See if you have mastered the concepts covered!
What is DNA? Who founded it?
Deoxyribonucleic acid founded by Albert Einstein
Ribonucleic acid founded by Friedrich Miescher
Deoxyribonucleic acid founded by Phoebus Levene
Deoxyribonucleic acid founded by Friedrich Miescher
What is RNA? What does RNA do?
Deoxyribonucleic acid that carries messages from the nucleus on how to make protein
Ribonucleic acid that holds all the information about the body
Deoxyribonucleic acid that holds all the information about the body
Ribonucleic acid that carries messages out from the nucleus on how to make protein
What are the components of the DNA backbone? What is the point of the DNA backbone?
Nitrogen bases, it serves to connect sugar and phosphate
Sugar and phosphate, it serves to connect the nitrogen bases
Nitrogen bases, it serves to hold all of the information about the body
Sugar and phosphate, it serves to shape the DNA into the double helix structure
What are the nitrogen bases and how do they pair up?
Adenine pairs with Cytosine and Guanine pairs with Thymine
Thymine pairs with Cytosine and Guanine pairs with Adenine
Thymine pairs with Guanine and Cytosine pairs with Adenine
Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with Cytosine
What is a gene? Where is it located?
It is a segment of DNA found in the nucleus
It is a nitrogen base found in the DNA
It is a segment of DNA found in chromosomes
It is a segment of DNA found in the nitrogen bases
Why does DNA need to regenerate?
So that the cell can perform Mitosis
So that the cell can perform Meiosis
So that the cell has more DNA and therefore it is smarter
So that the cell can split in half to make two gametes
How is DNA replicated?
The helicase splits the DNA molecule into two strands, the ligase lays down RNA, the Primase replaces the RNA with DNA, and the Polymerase II seals the DNA together
The ligase splits the DNA molecule into two strands, the Primase copies the DNA on, the ligase then fixes errors, and finally the Polymerase I seals the DNA together
The helicase splits the DNA molecule into two strands, the primase lays down RNA, Polymerase III copies on DNA, Polymerase I replaces RNA with DNA, and Ligase seals the DNA together
The helicase splits the DNA molecule into two strands, the Polymerase copies on the DNA, the Ligase adds on the RNA, and then the Primase seals the DNA and RNA together
What is the purpose of the cell cycle?
There is no point in the cell cycle, it is just a series of events happening in the cell
So that the cell can replicate its DNA
So that the cell can perform Mitosis
So that the cell can split and form 4 haploid cells
What is the point of Mitosis and why is it important?
It is important as it is used so that the organism can grow and replace damaged cells
It is important as it is used so that the DNA can be replicated in preparation for Meiosis
It is important as it is used to make the cell a gamete
It is important as it is used to make four haploid cells
What is the point of Meiosis? How does this process occur?
To create a single gamete, the cell is simply split two form two haploid gamete cells
Meiosis is only used as another name for Mitosis
To create 4 gametes, the DNA is replicated, chromosome pairs mix, then the cell is split twice to form 4 gametes
To create an identical cell, the DNA is duplicated and then the cell splits to form two identical cells
What are the major differences between Mitosis and Meiosis?
Mitosis creates an identical cell while Meiosis creates 4 gametes
Mitosis creates a haploid cell while Meiosis creates an identical cell
Mitosis creates 4 haploid cells while Meiosis creates 4 identical cells
Mitosis creates 4 gametes while Meiosis creates an identical cell
What is different about the chromosome pairs in Mitosis and Meiosis?
The chromosome pairs are always the same whether Meiosis or Mitosis
The chromosome pairs in Meiosis are the same as the parent cell while in Mitosis they are random
The chromosomes are not in pairs in Meiosis while in Mitosis they are
The chromosome pairs in Meiosis are random while in Mitosis they are the same as the parent cell
Describe the process of sexual reproduction.
Two cells are randomly selected from both parents' bodies and joined together in a cell with 92 chromosomes
A random cell in each parent's body is split in half and they join together in a cell with a random amount of chromosomes
Gametes are created first; then, the egg is fertilized by the sperm to complete the process
Mitosis occurs to create a gamete; the egg is then fertilized by the sperm to complete the process
What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?
It requires two parents, not just one
It carries adaptions from both parents, removing mutations; it also creates variation in offspring
It gives genes from both parents to the offspring
Sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction are the same
What are the advantages of asexual reproduction over sexual reproduction?
It requires two parents
It requires only one parent, has a higher success rate, and takes less time
It can happen whenever you want
Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are the same