Vertebral Column

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38 Questions - Developed by: Sam - Developed on: - 4.306 taken

  • 1
    The spine has how many degrees of freedom?
    2
    5
    3
    6
  • 2
    Thoracic and sacral spine have_______ with a _______ curve
    Posterior concavity; kyphotic
    Posterior concavity; lordotic
    Posterior convexity; lordotic
    Posterior convexity; kyphotic
  • 3
    Curves of the spine are said to be _______ in that changes in the position of one segment can result in changes in the position of other segments.
    Lordotic
    Kyphotic
    Dependent
    Interdependent
  • 4
    How many short bones or vertebrae make up the spine?
    30
    33
    23
    24
  • 5
    How many vertebrae are considered distinct entities?
    33
    24
    30
    23
  • 6
    How many intervertebral discs are there?
    23
    24
    30
    33
  • 7
    Which type of joint occurs between the vertebral bodies?
    Cartilaginous joints
    Zygapophyseal
    Gomphosis
    Apophyseal
    Diarthrodial joints
  • 8
    What type of joint occurs between the facets?
    Zygapophyseal
    Apophyseal
    Diarthrodial
    All of the above
  • 9
    What does it mean by motions in the spine are often "coupled"
    Motion around one axis is consistently associated with motions around another axis
    None
    None
    None
  • 10
    Ligaments that are intrasegmental:
    None
    Binds a number of vertebrae into a unit
    Binds adjacent vertebrae
    None
  • 11
    Cortical bone on a vertebral body is usually ______ around the rim of superior and inferior surfaces.
    Weaker
    Smaller
    Thinner
    Thicker
  • 12
    The purpose of the vertical trabecular patter in the body of a vertebrae is:
    To prevent forward head
    To provide the proper curvature
    To resist compressive loads
    To provide motion
  • 13
    Where would a compression fracture most likely occur in the spine?
    Posterior body
    Posterior vertebral arch
    Articular pillars
    Anterior body
  • 14
    The purpose of the non-articulating processes of vertebrae is:
    To resist compressive forces
    To provide movement
    To provide attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
    To provide stability
  • 15
    The pedicle is located _____ to the transverse process
    Anterior
    Lateral
    Medial
    Posterior
  • 16
    The laminae are located _____ to the transverse process
    Posterior
    Lateral
    Medial
    Anterior
  • 17
    Pars interarticularis is the portion of the laminae that lies between?
    Spinous processes
    Intervertebral foramen
    Intervertebral discs
    Superior and inferior articulating surfaces
  • 18
    IV discs make up what % of column length?
    10%
    50%
    20-30%
    80%
  • 19
    The ratio of disc thickness to body thickness is greatest in ___ and ____ and least in ____.
    Thoracic and lumbar; cervical
    Cervical and lumbar; thoracic
    Cervical and thoracic; sacral
    Cervical and thoracic; lumbar
  • 20
    The nucleus pulposus...
    Type II collagen and resists compression
    Type I collagen and resists tension
    Type I collagen and resists compression
    Type II collagen and resists tension
  • 21
    Collagen is highest in the ____
    Vertebral body
    Annulus fibrosus
    Nucleus pulposus
    Facet joints
  • 22
    T/F: the outer third of the annulus is innervated by vertebral and sinuvertebral nerves
    False
    None
    Maybe
    True
  • 23
    The fluid content of the IV discs are usually ____ in the morning and _____ in adults as they age.
    Lowest; lower
    Highest; lower
    Highest; higher
    Lowest; higher
  • 24
    How many ligaments are associated with intervertebral and zygapophyseal joints?
    5
    4
    3
    6
  • 25
    Which of the following spinal ligaments is considered to be the strongest?
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
    Supraspinous ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
    Interspinous ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
  • 26
    Tensile strength of the anterior longitudinal ligament is greatest in which regions
    Upper cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
    Lower cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
    Lower cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
    Upper cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
  • 27
    Which of the following ligaments are INTERSEGMENTAL?
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament and supraspinous ligament
    Ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament and intertransverse ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, interspinous ligament
    Interspinous ligament and ligamentum flavum
  • 28
    T/F: the posterior longitudinal ligament runs within the vertebral canal.
    None
    False
    True
    None
  • 29
    If the axis of a saggital plane motion changes as a result of disk degeneration and the axis moves posteriorly, then the posterior longitudinal ligament may become stretched in _____
    Lateral rotation
    Flexion
    Medial rotation
    Extension
  • 30
    The posterior longitudinal ligament is _____ in the lumbar spine
    Thicker
    Thinner
    Wider
    Bigger
  • 31
    Ligamentum flavum is
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Stretched during extension
    Thin and stiff
    Strongest in upper thoracic and weakest in mid cervical
  • 32
    The interspinous ligament is well developed only in which area?
    Coccygeal
    Cervical
    Thoracic
    Sacral
    Lumbar
  • 33
    Which of the following ligaments is the most mechanically advantaged?
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
    Intertransverse ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
    Interspinous ligament and supraspinous ligament
  • 34
    The supraspinous ligament runs from the ____ to ____. The ligament becomes the _____ in the cervical region.
    Sacrum to C7; ligamentum nuchae
    Sacrum to C2; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
    Sacrum to C7; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
    Sacrum to C2; alar ligament
  • 35
    During _______, the first of the posterior ligaments to fail are which of the following?
    Hyperextension; supraspinous and interspinous
    Hyperflexion; supraspinous and interspinous
    Hyperflexion; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
    Hyperextension; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
  • 36
    Intertransverse ligaments are unique because...
    They are well developed in the cervical and thoracic region
    They are paired and provide support during sidebending
    They are stretched during extension
    They are intersegmental ligaments
  • 37
    Ligaments of C1 and C2 have a large neutral zone on a stress-strain plot. This indicates______.
    No motion
    Stability
    Instability
    Less motion
  • 38
    Instability is considered:
    A lack of stiffness
    A high amount of stiffness
    None
    None

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