Vertebral Column

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38 Questions - Developed by: Sam - Developed on: - 4.939 taken

  • 1
    The spine has how many degrees of freedom?
    6
    5
    2
    3
  • 2
    Thoracic and sacral spine have_______ with a _______ curve
    Posterior concavity; lordotic
    Posterior convexity; lordotic
    Posterior convexity; kyphotic
    Posterior concavity; kyphotic
  • 3
    Curves of the spine are said to be _______ in that changes in the position of one segment can result in changes in the position of other segments.
    Interdependent
    Lordotic
    Kyphotic
    Dependent
  • 4
    How many short bones or vertebrae make up the spine?
    24
    33
    30
    23
  • 5
    How many vertebrae are considered distinct entities?
    23
    24
    33
    30
  • 6
    How many intervertebral discs are there?
    24
    33
    23
    30
  • 7
    Which type of joint occurs between the vertebral bodies?
    Zygapophyseal
    Apophyseal
    Gomphosis
    Diarthrodial joints
    Cartilaginous joints
  • 8
    What type of joint occurs between the facets?
    Zygapophyseal
    Apophyseal
    All of the above
    Diarthrodial
  • 9
    What does it mean by motions in the spine are often "coupled"
    None
    None
    None
    Motion around one axis is consistently associated with motions around another axis
  • 10
    Ligaments that are intrasegmental:
    Binds a number of vertebrae into a unit
    None
    None
    Binds adjacent vertebrae
  • 11
    Cortical bone on a vertebral body is usually ______ around the rim of superior and inferior surfaces.
    Thicker
    Thinner
    Weaker
    Smaller
  • 12
    The purpose of the vertical trabecular patter in the body of a vertebrae is:
    To prevent forward head
    To resist compressive loads
    To provide the proper curvature
    To provide motion
  • 13
    Where would a compression fracture most likely occur in the spine?
    Posterior vertebral arch
    Articular pillars
    Anterior body
    Posterior body
  • 14
    The purpose of the non-articulating processes of vertebrae is:
    To provide attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
    To resist compressive forces
    To provide movement
    To provide stability
  • 15
    The pedicle is located _____ to the transverse process
    Posterior
    Lateral
    Anterior
    Medial
  • 16
    The laminae are located _____ to the transverse process
    Lateral
    Posterior
    Anterior
    Medial
  • 17
    Pars interarticularis is the portion of the laminae that lies between?
    Intervertebral foramen
    Spinous processes
    Intervertebral discs
    Superior and inferior articulating surfaces
  • 18
    IV discs make up what % of column length?
    50%
    10%
    20-30%
    80%
  • 19
    The ratio of disc thickness to body thickness is greatest in ___ and ____ and least in ____.
    Cervical and thoracic; lumbar
    Cervical and thoracic; sacral
    Thoracic and lumbar; cervical
    Cervical and lumbar; thoracic
  • 20
    The nucleus pulposus...
    Type I collagen and resists compression
    Type II collagen and resists tension
    Type I collagen and resists tension
    Type II collagen and resists compression
  • 21
    Collagen is highest in the ____
    Annulus fibrosus
    Nucleus pulposus
    Vertebral body
    Facet joints
  • 22
    T/F: the outer third of the annulus is innervated by vertebral and sinuvertebral nerves
    False
    None
    Maybe
    True
  • 23
    The fluid content of the IV discs are usually ____ in the morning and _____ in adults as they age.
    Highest; higher
    Lowest; lower
    Lowest; higher
    Highest; lower
  • 24
    How many ligaments are associated with intervertebral and zygapophyseal joints?
    6
    5
    3
    4
  • 25
    Which of the following spinal ligaments is considered to be the strongest?
    Supraspinous ligament
    Interspinous ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
  • 26
    Tensile strength of the anterior longitudinal ligament is greatest in which regions
    Lower cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
    Lower cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
    Upper cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
    Upper cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
  • 27
    Which of the following ligaments are INTERSEGMENTAL?
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament and supraspinous ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, interspinous ligament
    Ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament and intertransverse ligament
    Interspinous ligament and ligamentum flavum
  • 28
    T/F: the posterior longitudinal ligament runs within the vertebral canal.
    None
    None
    False
    True
  • 29
    If the axis of a saggital plane motion changes as a result of disk degeneration and the axis moves posteriorly, then the posterior longitudinal ligament may become stretched in _____
    Extension
    Lateral rotation
    Medial rotation
    Flexion
  • 30
    The posterior longitudinal ligament is _____ in the lumbar spine
    Wider
    Bigger
    Thicker
    Thinner
  • 31
    Ligamentum flavum is
    Strongest in upper thoracic and weakest in mid cervical
    Stretched during extension
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Thin and stiff
  • 32
    The interspinous ligament is well developed only in which area?
    Cervical
    Coccygeal
    Sacral
    Lumbar
    Thoracic
  • 33
    Which of the following ligaments is the most mechanically advantaged?
    Interspinous ligament and supraspinous ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
    Intertransverse ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
  • 34
    The supraspinous ligament runs from the ____ to ____. The ligament becomes the _____ in the cervical region.
    Sacrum to C2; alar ligament
    Sacrum to C7; ligamentum nuchae
    Sacrum to C2; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
    Sacrum to C7; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
  • 35
    During _______, the first of the posterior ligaments to fail are which of the following?
    Hyperflexion; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
    Hyperextension; supraspinous and interspinous
    Hyperflexion; supraspinous and interspinous
    Hyperextension; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
  • 36
    Intertransverse ligaments are unique because...
    They are intersegmental ligaments
    They are well developed in the cervical and thoracic region
    They are paired and provide support during sidebending
    They are stretched during extension
  • 37
    Ligaments of C1 and C2 have a large neutral zone on a stress-strain plot. This indicates______.
    No motion
    Stability
    Less motion
    Instability
  • 38
    Instability is considered:
    None
    None
    A lack of stiffness
    A high amount of stiffness

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