Vertebral Column

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38 Questions - Developed by: Sam - Developed on: - 4.473 taken

  • 1
    The spine has how many degrees of freedom?
    3
    5
    6
    2
  • 2
    Thoracic and sacral spine have_______ with a _______ curve
    Posterior concavity; lordotic
    Posterior convexity; lordotic
    Posterior concavity; kyphotic
    Posterior convexity; kyphotic
  • 3
    Curves of the spine are said to be _______ in that changes in the position of one segment can result in changes in the position of other segments.
    Interdependent
    Kyphotic
    Lordotic
    Dependent
  • 4
    How many short bones or vertebrae make up the spine?
    33
    30
    24
    23
  • 5
    How many vertebrae are considered distinct entities?
    23
    33
    24
    30
  • 6
    How many intervertebral discs are there?
    24
    23
    33
    30
  • 7
    Which type of joint occurs between the vertebral bodies?
    Gomphosis
    Cartilaginous joints
    Zygapophyseal
    Diarthrodial joints
    Apophyseal
  • 8
    What type of joint occurs between the facets?
    Diarthrodial
    All of the above
    Zygapophyseal
    Apophyseal
  • 9
    What does it mean by motions in the spine are often "coupled"
    Motion around one axis is consistently associated with motions around another axis
    None
    None
    None
  • 10
    Ligaments that are intrasegmental:
    Binds adjacent vertebrae
    None
    None
    Binds a number of vertebrae into a unit
  • 11
    Cortical bone on a vertebral body is usually ______ around the rim of superior and inferior surfaces.
    Thicker
    Thinner
    Smaller
    Weaker
  • 12
    The purpose of the vertical trabecular patter in the body of a vertebrae is:
    To provide the proper curvature
    To resist compressive loads
    To prevent forward head
    To provide motion
  • 13
    Where would a compression fracture most likely occur in the spine?
    Anterior body
    Articular pillars
    Posterior body
    Posterior vertebral arch
  • 14
    The purpose of the non-articulating processes of vertebrae is:
    To resist compressive forces
    To provide attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
    To provide stability
    To provide movement
  • 15
    The pedicle is located _____ to the transverse process
    Lateral
    Anterior
    Posterior
    Medial
  • 16
    The laminae are located _____ to the transverse process
    Medial
    Anterior
    Posterior
    Lateral
  • 17
    Pars interarticularis is the portion of the laminae that lies between?
    Spinous processes
    Intervertebral discs
    Intervertebral foramen
    Superior and inferior articulating surfaces
  • 18
    IV discs make up what % of column length?
    80%
    10%
    50%
    20-30%
  • 19
    The ratio of disc thickness to body thickness is greatest in ___ and ____ and least in ____.
    Thoracic and lumbar; cervical
    Cervical and thoracic; lumbar
    Cervical and thoracic; sacral
    Cervical and lumbar; thoracic
  • 20
    The nucleus pulposus...
    Type I collagen and resists tension
    Type II collagen and resists compression
    Type II collagen and resists tension
    Type I collagen and resists compression
  • 21
    Collagen is highest in the ____
    Nucleus pulposus
    Vertebral body
    Annulus fibrosus
    Facet joints
  • 22
    T/F: the outer third of the annulus is innervated by vertebral and sinuvertebral nerves
    Maybe
    False
    True
    None
  • 23
    The fluid content of the IV discs are usually ____ in the morning and _____ in adults as they age.
    Lowest; lower
    Highest; lower
    Highest; higher
    Lowest; higher
  • 24
    How many ligaments are associated with intervertebral and zygapophyseal joints?
    3
    4
    6
    5
  • 25
    Which of the following spinal ligaments is considered to be the strongest?
    Interspinous ligament
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
    Supraspinous ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
  • 26
    Tensile strength of the anterior longitudinal ligament is greatest in which regions
    Lower cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
    Upper cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
    Upper cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
    Lower cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
  • 27
    Which of the following ligaments are INTERSEGMENTAL?
    Interspinous ligament and ligamentum flavum
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, interspinous ligament
    Ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament and intertransverse ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament and supraspinous ligament
  • 28
    T/F: the posterior longitudinal ligament runs within the vertebral canal.
    True
    None
    None
    False
  • 29
    If the axis of a saggital plane motion changes as a result of disk degeneration and the axis moves posteriorly, then the posterior longitudinal ligament may become stretched in _____
    Flexion
    Medial rotation
    Lateral rotation
    Extension
  • 30
    The posterior longitudinal ligament is _____ in the lumbar spine
    Thinner
    Thicker
    Wider
    Bigger
  • 31
    Ligamentum flavum is
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Thin and stiff
    Strongest in upper thoracic and weakest in mid cervical
    Stretched during extension
  • 32
    The interspinous ligament is well developed only in which area?
    Thoracic
    Cervical
    Coccygeal
    Lumbar
    Sacral
  • 33
    Which of the following ligaments is the most mechanically advantaged?
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
    Intertransverse ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
    Interspinous ligament and supraspinous ligament
  • 34
    The supraspinous ligament runs from the ____ to ____. The ligament becomes the _____ in the cervical region.
    Sacrum to C7; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
    Sacrum to C2; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
    Sacrum to C7; ligamentum nuchae
    Sacrum to C2; alar ligament
  • 35
    During _______, the first of the posterior ligaments to fail are which of the following?
    Hyperextension; supraspinous and interspinous
    Hyperflexion; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
    Hyperflexion; supraspinous and interspinous
    Hyperextension; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
  • 36
    Intertransverse ligaments are unique because...
    They are well developed in the cervical and thoracic region
    They are stretched during extension
    They are paired and provide support during sidebending
    They are intersegmental ligaments
  • 37
    Ligaments of C1 and C2 have a large neutral zone on a stress-strain plot. This indicates______.
    No motion
    Instability
    Less motion
    Stability
  • 38
    Instability is considered:
    None
    A high amount of stiffness
    A lack of stiffness
    None

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