Vertebral Column

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38 Questions - Developed by: Sam - Developed on: - 4.673 taken

  • 1
    The spine has how many degrees of freedom?
    6
    3
    2
    5
  • 2
    Thoracic and sacral spine have_______ with a _______ curve
    Posterior concavity; kyphotic
    Posterior concavity; lordotic
    Posterior convexity; lordotic
    Posterior convexity; kyphotic
  • 3
    Curves of the spine are said to be _______ in that changes in the position of one segment can result in changes in the position of other segments.
    Lordotic
    Interdependent
    Kyphotic
    Dependent
  • 4
    How many short bones or vertebrae make up the spine?
    24
    23
    33
    30
  • 5
    How many vertebrae are considered distinct entities?
    30
    24
    33
    23
  • 6
    How many intervertebral discs are there?
    23
    30
    33
    24
  • 7
    Which type of joint occurs between the vertebral bodies?
    Gomphosis
    Apophyseal
    Zygapophyseal
    Cartilaginous joints
    Diarthrodial joints
  • 8
    What type of joint occurs between the facets?
    All of the above
    Apophyseal
    Diarthrodial
    Zygapophyseal
  • 9
    What does it mean by motions in the spine are often "coupled"
    None
    None
    None
    Motion around one axis is consistently associated with motions around another axis
  • 10
    Ligaments that are intrasegmental:
    Binds adjacent vertebrae
    Binds a number of vertebrae into a unit
    None
    None
  • 11
    Cortical bone on a vertebral body is usually ______ around the rim of superior and inferior surfaces.
    Weaker
    Smaller
    Thicker
    Thinner
  • 12
    The purpose of the vertical trabecular patter in the body of a vertebrae is:
    To prevent forward head
    To provide motion
    To resist compressive loads
    To provide the proper curvature
  • 13
    Where would a compression fracture most likely occur in the spine?
    Articular pillars
    Posterior body
    Anterior body
    Posterior vertebral arch
  • 14
    The purpose of the non-articulating processes of vertebrae is:
    To resist compressive forces
    To provide movement
    To provide stability
    To provide attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
  • 15
    The pedicle is located _____ to the transverse process
    Medial
    Lateral
    Posterior
    Anterior
  • 16
    The laminae are located _____ to the transverse process
    Anterior
    Posterior
    Medial
    Lateral
  • 17
    Pars interarticularis is the portion of the laminae that lies between?
    Intervertebral foramen
    Spinous processes
    Superior and inferior articulating surfaces
    Intervertebral discs
  • 18
    IV discs make up what % of column length?
    80%
    20-30%
    10%
    50%
  • 19
    The ratio of disc thickness to body thickness is greatest in ___ and ____ and least in ____.
    Cervical and thoracic; lumbar
    Thoracic and lumbar; cervical
    Cervical and thoracic; sacral
    Cervical and lumbar; thoracic
  • 20
    The nucleus pulposus...
    Type I collagen and resists compression
    Type II collagen and resists tension
    Type II collagen and resists compression
    Type I collagen and resists tension
  • 21
    Collagen is highest in the ____
    Vertebral body
    Nucleus pulposus
    Facet joints
    Annulus fibrosus
  • 22
    T/F: the outer third of the annulus is innervated by vertebral and sinuvertebral nerves
    None
    Maybe
    False
    True
  • 23
    The fluid content of the IV discs are usually ____ in the morning and _____ in adults as they age.
    Lowest; higher
    Highest; lower
    Highest; higher
    Lowest; lower
  • 24
    How many ligaments are associated with intervertebral and zygapophyseal joints?
    5
    4
    6
    3
  • 25
    Which of the following spinal ligaments is considered to be the strongest?
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
    Interspinous ligament
    Supraspinous ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
  • 26
    Tensile strength of the anterior longitudinal ligament is greatest in which regions
    Upper cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
    Upper cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
    Lower cervical, lower thoracic and lumbar
    Lower cervical, upper thoracic and lumbar
  • 27
    Which of the following ligaments are INTERSEGMENTAL?
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament and supraspinous ligament
    Interspinous ligament and ligamentum flavum
    Ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament and intertransverse ligament
    Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, interspinous ligament
  • 28
    T/F: the posterior longitudinal ligament runs within the vertebral canal.
    None
    True
    False
    None
  • 29
    If the axis of a saggital plane motion changes as a result of disk degeneration and the axis moves posteriorly, then the posterior longitudinal ligament may become stretched in _____
    Medial rotation
    Flexion
    Lateral rotation
    Extension
  • 30
    The posterior longitudinal ligament is _____ in the lumbar spine
    Thicker
    Wider
    Thinner
    Bigger
  • 31
    Ligamentum flavum is
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Thin and stiff
    Strongest in upper thoracic and weakest in mid cervical
    Extends from sacrum to C2
    Stretched during extension
  • 32
    The interspinous ligament is well developed only in which area?
    Cervical
    Sacral
    Thoracic
    Lumbar
    Coccygeal
  • 33
    Which of the following ligaments is the most mechanically advantaged?
    Anterior longitudinal ligament
    Interspinous ligament and supraspinous ligament
    Posterior longitudinal ligament
    Ligamentum flavum
    Intertransverse ligament
  • 34
    The supraspinous ligament runs from the ____ to ____. The ligament becomes the _____ in the cervical region.
    Sacrum to C2; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
    Sacrum to C7; ligamentum nuchae
    Sacrum to C7; anterior atlanto-axial ligament
    Sacrum to C2; alar ligament
  • 35
    During _______, the first of the posterior ligaments to fail are which of the following?
    Hyperextension; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
    Hyperflexion; posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum
    Hyperextension; supraspinous and interspinous
    Hyperflexion; supraspinous and interspinous
  • 36
    Intertransverse ligaments are unique because...
    They are stretched during extension
    They are well developed in the cervical and thoracic region
    They are intersegmental ligaments
    They are paired and provide support during sidebending
  • 37
    Ligaments of C1 and C2 have a large neutral zone on a stress-strain plot. This indicates______.
    Stability
    Instability
    Less motion
    No motion
  • 38
    Instability is considered:
    A lack of stiffness
    None
    A high amount of stiffness
    None

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