BIO 1112 - Exam 1 (Chapter 14-16)

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56 Questions - Developed by: Caty Nguyen - Developed on: - 3.329 taken

  • 1
    The picture below is from your textbook. Identify the structure below.
    The picture below is from your textbook. Identify the structure below.
    Bacterial cell wall
    Plasma membrane
    Bacterial nuclear membrane
  • 2
    Beta-lactam antibiotics work by:
    Interfering with bacteria's ability to stick to surfaces within the body
    Causing the body's temperature to decrease, making it difficult for the bacteria to grow
    Shrinking bacteria
    Destroying bacterial DNA
    Interfering with bacteria's ability to synthesize cell walls
  • 3
    Which of the following people are at the lowest risk of acquiring MRSA?
    Someone who works as a prison guard
    A rugby player
    A janitor at a hospital
    A computer consultant who works from home
    A daycare worker
  • 4
    If we take the most fit bacterium from one environment-- one in which the antibiotic amoxicillin is abundant, for example-- and place it in an environment in which a different antibiotic is abundant, will it retain its high degree of fitness?
    Not necessarily; fitness depends on the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce, and it may not do this as well in a different environment
    Yes, fitness is fitness, regardless of the environment
    No, what is fit in one environment will never be fit in another environment
    Yes, once a bacterium is resistant to one antibiotic it is resistant to all antibiotics
  • 5
    The evolution of antibiotic resistance is an example of
    Diversifying selection
    Random selection
    Stabilizing selection
    Directional selection
    Steady selection
  • 6
    In humans, very-large-birth-weight babies and very tiny babies do not survive as well as midrange babies.
    Diversifying selection
    Stabilizing selection
    Random selection
    Steady selection
    Directional selection
  • 7
    Birds that have either very big beaks, or very small beaks do best. Middle sized beaks are bad.
    Directional selection
    Stabilizing selection
    Diversifying selection
    Steady selection
    Random selection
  • 8
    Among bull moose, bigger, stronger males always get to mate more frequently
    Random selection
    Directional selection
    Steady selection
    Diversifying selection
    Stabilizing selection
  • 9
    If the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus fails to form properly, water will
    Rush into the cell, causing it to explode
    Drain out of the cell
    Drown the bacteria
    Create a secondary wall around the cell
    Create a bridge of hydrogen bonds to repair the wall
  • 10
    Binary fission is a form of
    Nuclear division
    Sexual reproduction
    Aerobic respiration
    Anaerobic respiration
    Asexual reproduction
  • 11
    Which bacterial phenotype would have the highest fitness if it was culture in an environment containing lots of antibiotics?
    A slightly resistant variant
    A highly-antibiotic-resistant variant
    An antibiotic-sensitive variant
    A mildly sensitive antibiotic resistant variant
    A moderately resistant variant
  • 12
    An organism's fitness depends on its:
    Physical size
    Ability to survive and reproduce
    Ability to swap genetic material with other organisms
    Ability to mutate
  • 13
    All of the following are true of natural selection EXCEPT
    It is the process by which evolution occurs
    It can result in a change in allele frequencies over time
    It results in some individuals surviving better and reproducing more than others
    It results in populations better suited to their environment than their predecessors
    It works best in genetically uniform (homogenous) populations
  • 14
    All of the following can decrease the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains EXCEPT
    Take antibiotics for a cold
    Keep sports equipment clean
    Wash hands frequently
    Reduce antibiotics in animal feed
    Disinfect contaminated surfaces
  • 15
    Manatees and dugongs generally inhabit an area
    South of the equator
    Distributed around the poles
    Along the Tropic of Capricorn
    Close to equatorial regions and tropics
    North of the equator
  • 16
    Founder effect describes a
    New population arising from a few individuals
    Population that is largely interbreeding
    Population that has undergone mutation
    New population arising from a migration of a population
    Population that results from one species crossing with another
  • 17
    Allele frequencies of a population can change by
    Genetic drift
    Natural selection
    All of the above
    Mutations in the gene pool
    Founder effect
  • 18
    This mechanism is NOT responsible for random changes in allele frequency in the gene pool of a population
    Natural selection
    Founder effect
    Mutations in the gene pool
    Genetic drift
  • 19
    A population of manatees has 12 different alleles, A through L, of a particular gene. A drunk motorboat driver recklessly tears through the water where the manatees live, killing 90% of them. The surviving manatees are all homozygous for allele B. What type of event is this?
    Mutations in the gene pool
    Genetic drift
    Founder effect
    Natural selection
  • 20
    A starting population of bacteria has two alleles of the TUB gene: T and t. The frequency of T is 0.8 and the frequency of t is 0.2. The local environment undergoes an elevated temperature for many generations of bacterial reproduction. After 50 generations of reproduction at the elevated temperature, the frequency of T is 0.4 and the frequency of t is 0.6. Has evolution occurred?
    I don't know
  • 21
    All of the following are typical for population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, EXCEPT:
    Random mating of individuals
    No mutation
    No natural selection favoring some alleles over others
    Changing allele frequencies
    No influx of alleles from neighboring populations (i.e. no gene flow)
  • 22
    Which population would you expect to have the most genetic diversity?
    A coastal harbor manatee population
    A non-migratory manatee population
    A freshwater manatee population
    Migratory manatee population
    A landlocked manatee population
  • 23
    The biological species concept defines a species
    On the basis of similar levels of genetic diversity
    On the basis of recognizing one another's mating behaviors
    On the basis of close genetic relationships
    On the basis of similar physical appearance
    On the basis of the ability to mate and produce fertile offspring
  • 24
    Frog species mate at different times of the year.
    Temporal isolation
    Mechanical isolation
    Behavioral isolation
    Hybrid infertility
    Ecological isolation
  • 25
    Mating rituals such as bird songs and dances.
    Behavioral isolation
    Hybrid infertility
    Mechanical isolation
    Temporal isolation
    Ecological isolation
  • 26
    Incompatibility of mating organs
    Ecological isolation
    Behavioral isolation
    Mechanical isolation
    Hybrid infertility
    Temporal isolation
  • 27
    Differing environments
    Hybrid infertility
    Temporal isolation
    Ecological isolation
    Behavioral isolation
    Mechanical isolation
  • 28
    Viable hybrid offspring cannot reproduce
    Temporal isolation
    Behavioral isolation
    Ecological isolation
    Hybrid infertility
    Mechanical isolation
  • 29
    Which of the following is most likely to leave a fossil?
    Sea sponge
    All of the above are equally likely to leave a fossil
  • 30
    Which of the following features of Tiktaalik is not shared with other bony fishes?
    Mobile neck
    None of the above
  • 31
    Why is Tiktaalik considered a transitional fossil?
    It's fossilized remains were found in an area between land and water.
    It has two eyes and fins.
    It is a hybrid of an aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate.
    It is now extinct.
    It has a mixture of an aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate features.
  • 32
    What prevents fossilization of a dead organism?
    Having a calcified skeleton
    The presence of microbes.
    Having a silicon protective shell
    Lack of oxygen
  • 33
    Hardened tree sap that often contains fossilized organisms is called
  • 34
    Fossils found in sedimentary socks
    Get younger the deeper they are found
    Are all the same age
    Are youngest at the bottom
    Get older at the top
    Get older the deeper they are found
  • 35
    All the following statements about fossil dating are true EXCEPT
    Relative dating of fossils involves radiometrically dating rocks above and below the fossil
    Sedimentary rock can be radiometrically dated while volcanic rock cannot
    Both relative and radiometric dating may be used in combination to determine the age of a fossil
    Radiometric dating is the most accurate way to age a fossil
    Fossils found deeper in the Earth are generally older than fossils found higher
  • 36
    The four-toes ancestor of the modern horse would have been well suited to life in the
    Open grasslands
  • 37
    Which statement about Tiktaalik is FALSE?
    It did not have jointed fingers
    It's neck was mobile
    It is a transitional fossil
    It was a tetrapod
    It was a fish with useful terrestrial adaptations
  • 38
    Which of the following statements about homology is TRUE?
    It demonstrates that similarity of structures similarity of structures can occur, even in the absence of common ancestors.
    It demonstrates that similarity of structures is due to descent from a common ancestor.
    It demonstrates how different environments can lead to the same physical structures.
    It demonstrates how the same environment can lead to different physical structures.
    It demonstrates that similarity of structures is due to random chance.
  • 39
    Some snakes have small remnants of legs that they now use for clasping during mating. These leg remnants are
    Faulty genitals
    Embryonic wings
    Vestigial characteristics
    Homologous legs
    Primitive arms
  • 40
    Which organism would have the move similar DNA to humans?
  • 41
    The descent with modification phrase used by Darwin has become a well-documented scientific theory called
  • 42
    One of the features which distinguishes tetrapods from their ancestors would be:
    All of the above
    Jointed fingers and toes
    Tetrapods have scales
    Tetrapods never have gills
    The presence of ribs
  • 43
    Imagine a manatee population of 100 animals, that has both chocolate and peanut butter alleles. If chocolate alleles have a frequency of p = 0.80, and peanut butter has a frequency of q = 0.20, then how many heterozygous manatees might you expect to find?
  • 44
    The accumulation of harmful recessive phenotypes, which can threaten a species' long-term survival is called
    Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    Non-adaptive evolution
    Inbreeding depression
  • 45
    What was the name of the ship that carried Darwin on his voyage?
    USS Galapagos
    HMS Terrier
    USS Constitution
    HMS Beagle
    HMS Hound
  • 46
    Which species is more energetically economical during walking: a human or chimpanzee?
  • 47
    What form of quadrupedalism do chimps employ?
    Knuckle walking
    Heterocercal tail
    Knee knocking
  • 48
    According to the author of this article, which is the most natural kind of diet for humans?
    A non carbohydrate diet
    Strictly fats and protein
    A strict vegetarian diet
    A varied diet including meat
  • 49
    How does meat from free-ranging animals differ from the meat from domesticated feedlot animals?
    Free-ranging animal meat is higher in fat and lower in unsaturated fats
    Free ranging animal meat is better tasting
    Free ranging animal meat is higher in hormone content
    Free-ranging animal meat is lower in fat and higher in unsaturated fats
  • 50
    According to what you learned from the article, what statement would best describe our choice of lifestyle today?
    As a complex personality and misunderstood academic, we have keen interests in the pastry sciences.
    Pappadeux . . . Pappadeux
    Some of us are an evolutionary throwback to more primitive humans, who unlike more modern humans, wanted as much nutritional return from their food in as little volume and with as little physical effort as possible.
    Being primitive, we only want to consume simpler shapes, such as donuts.
    Like all modern humans who carry the burden of past evolutionary pressures for survival, we are interested in gaining as much nutritional return from our food in as little volume and with as little physical effort as possible
  • 51
    As used in the article Scientific America, the astragalus is:
    A specialized gland which enables an organism to excrete excess salt
    The whale star
    A bone in the foot or "heel"
    The long bone in the upper arm
    A specialized whale tooth
  • 52
    The picture below is a Packicetus
    The picture below is a Packicetus
    I don't know
  • 53
    Being marine fossils, early whales would most likely be found in what kind of rock?
    Southern 70's
  • 54
    The "order of mammals that comprises whales, dolphins and porpoises..."
  • 55
    What African mammal are whales most closely related to?
    Water buffalos
  • 56
    The sea which was important to early whale evolution, that stretched from Spain to Indonesia, no longer exists. It's name is:
    The Indian Ocean
    The Baltic Sea
    The Atlantic Ocean
    The Mediterranean Sea
    The Tethys Sea

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