Kap. 20, Diagnostic and therapeutic methods

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74 Questions - Developed by: B - Developed on: - 449 taken

  • 1
    - therapeutic and diagnostic methods are invasive and noninvasive
  • 2
    - a therapy employing an ionizing radiation is based on different absorption of this
    radiation by different tissues
  • 3
    - the doses of radiation applied in therapy are similar to doses used in diagnostics but the configuration of irradiation is different
  • 4
    - skiascopy represents an organ imaging technique using the X-rays at an actual time
  • 5
    - skiagraphy is X-ray imaging technique performing the image of organs on the film
  • 6
    - computer tomography (CT) represents an imaging of the organ at its layers by scanning
  • 7
    - computer tomography (CT) produces scan images based on a „transillumination“ of
    organs with X-rays
  • 8
    - radioisotopes when introduced into a body accumulate themselves within the examined organ, and release the radiation being detected (e.g. by gamma-camera)
  • 9
    - positron-emission tomography (PET) is based on the detection of positrons penetrating an examined tissue
  • 10
    - nuclear magnetic resonance tomography (NMR or NMRT) is based on an absorption of
    infrared radiation in the tissues by the strong magnetic field
  • 11
    - magnetic resonance (MR) employs ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiations in order
    to generate image
  • 12
    - electron microscopes use primarily a stream of fast electrons to create an image
  • 13
    - NMR tomographs do not contain magnet
  • 14
    - NMR tomographs do not contain radio transmitter
  • 15
    - NMR tomographs do not contain X-ray tube
  • 16
    - NMR does not detect nuclei 12C
  • 17
    - NMR detects nuclei 12C
  • 18
    - nuclear magnetic spectroscopy allows to determine the oedema size
  • 19
    - nuclear magnetic spectroscopy allows to determine the tumor size
  • 20
    - nuclear magnetic spectroscopy allows to determine the cytoplasmic pH without
    disruptions of cytoplasmic membranes
  • 21
    - nuclear magnetic spectroscopy allows to locate the lesions (spots) of (MS)disseminated sclerosis
  • 22
    - the advantage of magnetic resonance technique over CT is the absence of electromagnetic radiation
  • 23
    - the advantage of magnetic resonance technique over CT is possibility to use contrast
    substances
  • 24
    - the advantage of magnetic resonance technique over CT is the absence of ionizing
    electromagnetic radiation
  • 25
    - artificial ventilation's may apply positive as well as negative pressure (comparing with
    atmospheric pressure)
  • 26
    - continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) means that patients breathe spontaneously, however, the pressure of gas is higher than the atmospheric pressure
  • 27
    - during artificial ventilations at least certain of following parameters are set: an inspiratory duration, an expiratory duration, maximum allowed inspiratory and/or expiratory pressures and/or volumes
  • 28
    - a pacemaker, in fact, replaces damaged and unexcitable myocardial tissue
  • 29
    - effects of direct electric current (DC) are employed in diathermy
  • 30
    - galvanotherapy means the effects of high-frequency alternating electric currents (AC)
  • 31
    - percusion is based on the listening of sounds and murmurs by a stethoscope
  • 32
    - electroencephalografy (EEG) employs an intracellular recording of electrical activities
    of brain
  • 33
    - during a fiberscopy the examined organ is illuminated and its image is transferred using fiber optics
  • 34
    - fiberscopes allow observations of body cavities based on the total reflection of the light
    on an observed tissue
  • 35
    - dialysis employs the diffusion of toxic metabolites from the blood into dialysing fluid
  • 36
    - dialysis employs the mechanisms of active transports
  • 37
    - dialysis employs the mechanisms of osmosis
  • 38
    - dialysis employs the mechanisms of exocytosis
  • 39
    - cautery is an equipment used for the coagulation of tissues by high temperatures
  • 40
    - cautery is an equipment used for the destruction of tissues by high pressures
  • 41
    - electrocoagulators are devices for the destruction of tissues by high temperatures
  • 42
    - electrocoagulators are devices for the destruction of tissues by strong electric fields
  • 43
    - cryocautery causes a tissue destruction due to deep freezing
  • 44
    - cryocautery causes a tissue destruction due to high heating
  • 45
    - diathermy employs thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields
  • 46
    - defibrilation employs intense electric currents, which stimulate the heart tissue at the
    same time
  • 47
    - a defibrilator profoundly depolarizes the heart tissue, thus allowing a restoration of a
    regular depolarization and the normal heart action
  • 48
    - defibrilation employs low electric currents, which stimulate the heart tissue at the same time
  • 49
    - patients have to be grounded during defibrilation
  • 50
    - patients must not be grounded during defibrilation
  • 51
    - electric currents as well as magnetic fields can be used to stimulate the nerves and
    muscles during the rehabilitation due to they spasmolytic, anti-swelling, and analgetic
    effects
  • 52
    - an increase as well as a decrease of the tissue pH has analgetic effects
  • 53
    - laser is a useful tool at the surgery (a laser scalpel), photo-coagulation of retina and lens, and eye surgery
  • 54
    - an ultrasound treatment is commonly used to treat malignant tumors
  • 55
    - lithotripsy uses pulses of electromagnetic field at frequencies about 5 Hz in order to
    destroy kidney concrements (stones)
  • 56
    - using the ultrasound imaging techniques a record „A“ represents two dimensional (2D)
    picture of examined tissues
  • 57
    - ultrasound is the electromagnetic waving within tissues at frequencies above 20 kHz
  • 58
    - negative effects of ultrasound are mostly thermal effects and possible damage of tissues by cavitations
  • 59
    - ultrasound examinations employ unequal absorptions of energy in tissues and thus
    a reduction of transmitted field in order to create the image
  • 60
    - higher frequency ultrasound penetrates in lesser extent through the tissues, however, it produces more contrasting image (better resolution)
  • 61
    - reflection of ultrasound on the transition (boundary) of two tissues depends only on the acoustic impedance of the first one
  • 62
    - reflection of ultrasound on the transition (boundary) of two tissues depends only on the acoustic impedance of the second one
  • 63
    - reflection of ultrasound on the transition (boundary) of two tissues depends on the
    acoustic impedance of both tissues
  • 64
    - reflection of ultrasound on the transition (boundary) of two tissues depends mainly on the frequency of ultrasound
  • 65
    - at the transition (boundary) of two media, the higher the acoustic impedances of both media, the higher the energy of reflected ultrasound
  • 66
    - at the transition (boundary) of two media, the lower the acoustic impedances of both media, the higher the energy of reflected ultrasound
  • 67
    - at the transition (boundary) of two media, the lower the difference of acoustic impedance's of both media, the higher the energy of reflected ultrasound
  • 68
    - at the transition (boundary) of two media, the higher the difference of acoustic impedance's of both media, the higher the energy of reflected ultrasound
  • 69
    - typical frequencies of ultrasound used for diagnostics are around 2 kHz
  • 70
    - typical frequencies of ultrasound used for diagnostics are around 20 kHz
  • 71
    - typical frequencies of ultrasound used for diagnostics are around 20 MHz
  • 72
    - relations of echo amplitudes and the distances within the tissues represent the ultrasound A - mode
  • 73
    - relations of echo amplitudes and the distances within the tissues represent the ultrasound B - mode
  • 74
    - relations of echo amplitudes and the distances within the tissues represent both the ultrasound A - mode and ultrasound B - mode

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