Module 10: Gene Expression - From DNA to Protein

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Genes code for proteins, and proteins control most everything about us, including our appearance. The process of gene expression goes from DNA to RNA, and RNA to protein. The first process, transcription, occurs in the nucleus, and the other, translation, occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.

It would be very wasteful to create all proteins, all the time, so genes are regulated. At any given time, some are turned on while others are turned off. Cell differentiation also relies on turning genes on or off. Even though every somatic cell has the same set of genes, some cells will turn particular genes either on or off. For example, a muscle cell will make a different set of proteins than a skin cell. In this way, different cells specialize to perform varies activities in the body.

  • 1
    Is it possible to determine predispositions for diseases by analyzing genes?
  • 2
    What is X-ray crystallography?
  • 3
    Who had shown that of the four kind of monomers (nucleotides) present in a DNA molecule, two types were always present in equal amounts and the remaining two types were always present in equal amounts?

  • 4
    What are Chargaff’s rules?
  • 5
    What are the three parts of DNA nucleotides?
  • 6
    What are the four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA?

  • 7
    How does the phosphate group of one nucleotide bond to another nucleotide bond?
  • 8
    What is a double helix?
  • 9
    What does adenine pair with?
  • 10
    What does guanine pair with?

  • 11
    How many hydrogen bonds connect with adenine and thymine?
  • 12
    How many hydrogen bonds connect cytosine and guanine?
  • 13
    What are the nucleotides in RNA made up of?
  • 14
    What is thymine replaced by in RNA?
  • 15
    What type of cell contains a single, circular chromosome that is found in an area in the cytoplasm called the nucleoid?
  • 16
    What are the “beads” and the “string” in “beads on a string” structure.

  • 17
    At what stage of mitosis are the chromosomes lined up in the center of the cell, and are at their most compacted?
  • 18
    During what phase does DNA replication occur?
  • 19
    What is semiconservative replication?
  • 20
    What are the three main stages of DNA replication

  • 21
    DNA is made accessible to the proteins and enzymes involved in the replication process in what stage of DNA replication
  • 22
    What is helicase?
  • 23
    During DNA replication, which of the following is complementary to the DNA sequence 5'-AAGCGT-3'?
  • 24
    What does DNA polymerase do?
  • 25
    During what stage does DNA polymerase begin?
  • 26
    What are Okazaki fragments?

  • 27
    What is DNA ligase?
  • 28
    What is telomerase?
  • 29
    In 2010, scientists found that telomerase can reverse what in mice
  • 30
    DNA polymerase can make mistakes while adding nucleotides. When are these mistakes corrected?

  • 31
    What is the process of the DNA double strand being unwound and separated, the incorrect bases removed along with a few bases on the 5’ and 3’ end, and replaced by copying the template with the help of DNA polymerase?
  • 32
    What are two thymine nucleotides adjacent to each other on one strand and covalently bonded to each other, as well as the DNA backbone, called?
  • 33
    If the thymine dimer is not removed and repaired it will lead to what?
  • 34
    What is stated by the central dogma?
  • 35
    In what part of the cell does transcription take place?
  • 36
    What must be removed from eukaryotic mRNA during its processing to form the final transcript?
  • 37
    True or False: The copying of DNA to mRNA is relatively straightforward, with one nucleotide being added to the mRNA strand for every complementary nucleotide read in the DNA strand.
  • 38
    What are groups of three mRNA nucleotides called
  • 39
    Why is the translation to protein more complex that the copying of DNA to mRNA?
  • 40
    True or false: Only prokaryotes have transcription occur in three main stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.
  • 41
    What is a transcription bubble?
  • 42
    What are the proteins and enzymes involved in transcription that bind to the DNA sequence in order to initiate transcription called?
  • 43
    What determines whether a gene can transcribe all of the time, some of the time, or hardly at all
  • 44
    During elongation, an enzyme called what proceeds along the DNA template adding nucleotides by base pairing with the DNA template?
  • 45
    The mRNA transcript is first coated in RNA-stabilizing proteins to prevent it from what?
  • 46
    True or False: RNA-stabilizing proteins are added while the pre-mRNA still is being synthesized by adding a 5’ cap of the growing elongation?
  • 47
    Once elongation is complete, an enzyme then adds a string of approximately 200 adenine residues to the 3’ end, this is called what?
  • 48
    Once elongation is complete, an enzyme then adds a string of approximately 200 adenine residues to the 3’ end, this is called what?
  • 49
    What are exons?
  • 50
    What are introns?
  • 51
    What is the process that involves decoding an mRNA message into a polypeptide product?
  • 52
    What input does translation require?
  • 53
    True or False: Ribosomes are made up of only large units for translation?
  • 54
    What is a tRNA (transfer RNAs)
  • 55
    What occurs during the process of tRNA “charging”?
  • 56
    Each amino acid is defined by three-nucleotide mRNA sequence called what?
  • 57
    How many combinations are possible for mRNAs three-nucleotide code?
  • 58
    True or False: Every species on Earth uses different genetic codes for protein synthesis.
  • 59
    The initiator tRNA anticodon (UAC) interacts with the AUG start codon, and links to a special form of what amino acid?
  • 60
    What does the A site do?
  • 61
    What does the P site do?
  • 62
    What does the E site do?
  • 63
    What type of RNA contains the codons?
  • 64
    What type of RNA contains the anticodons?
  • 65
    What type of RNA forms the small and large ribosomal subunits?
  • 66
    When does the peptide bond form between amino acids: during initiation, elongation, or termination?
  • 67
    What is the process of turning on a gene to produce RNA and protein called?
  • 68
    In a prokaryotic organism, does transcription and translation occur at different times?
  • 69
    In a prokaryotic organism, when does transcription stop?
  • 70
    What is the primary method to control what type and how much protein is expressed in a prokaryotic cell?
  • 71
    At what level does the control of gene expression occur in prokaryotic cells?
  • 72
    What is the name of the stretch of DNA with three adjacent genes that code for proteins that participate in the absorption and metabolism of lactose?
  • 73
    Where does transcription occur in a eukaryotic cell?
  • 74
    Where does translation occur in a eukaryotic cell?
  • 75
    What is the epigenetic level?
  • 76
    What is the transcriptional level?
  • 77
    What is the post-transcriptional level?
  • 78
    What is the translational level
  • 79
    What is the post-translational level?
  • 80
    When lactose is not present in the lac operon, what happens to the repressor protein?

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