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Organizational behavior chapter 8
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Teams have which of the following features?
Exist to fulfill some purpose.
Members perceive themselves as a social entity.
Team members influence each other.
All of these are features of teams.
Two or more people.
Some ________ are just people assembled together without any necessary ________?
Task forces; goals
Production teams; norms
Which of these statements is TRUE?
Groups are teams with a high level of task interdependence.
Unlike teams, groups are associated with an organizational objective
All groups are teams.
Some groups are just people assembled together in the same physical area.
Group are teams that have no purpose for their members
Which of these statements about teams is FALSE?
Teams are held together by their interdependence and need for collaboration to fulfill goals.
Team members perceive themselves as a social entity within the organization
Team members influence each other, although some members are more influential than others.
All teams exist to fulfill some purpose
All groups are teams
Which of the following statements about teams and groups is FALSE?
All members of a work team have influence, although some may have more influence than others.
A team always requires some form of communication among its members.
Departments are teams when employees interact with each other.
A team can have dozens of members
Some teams exist without any goal or purpose.
Employees working in a department would be considered a team only when:?
everyone in the department has the same set of skills.
They are interdependent and coordinate work activities.
They have autonomy.
They operate without any supervisor.
they are all located in the same physical area.
Employees working in an organization would be considered a team only when:?
They exist to serve some purpose and perceive themselves to be a team.
They manage their own work activities without a supervisor
they have the same skills.
They report to the same supervisor.
Never, because work teams never include all employees from the same department.
Which of the following is usually an informal group?
People you regularly meet for lunch
A task force refers to?
Any formal group whose members work permanently and spend most of their time in that team.
Any temporary team that investigates a particular problem and typically disbands when the decision is made.
None of these statements describes a task force.
Any formal group whose members must be able to perform all tasks on the team
any informal group that has the same members as the permanent task-oriented group
Royal Dutch/Shell Group formed a team to improve revenues for its service stations along major highways in Malaysia. This team, which included a service station dealer, a union truck driver, and four or five marketing executives, disbanded after it had reviewed the Malaysian service stations and submitted a business plan. The Malaysian group is called?
A task force.
An informal group.
a community of practice.
A commuter group.
A friendship group.
________ explains why people belong to informal groups?
Social identity theory
Goal setting theory
Stages of team development
According to social identity theory?
Team members identify with their team only when they are publicly recognized as members of that team
The most effective teams have as many members as the organization can afford.
People define themselves by their group affiliations.
Teams are never as productive as individuals working alone.
the team development process occurs more rapidly for heterogeneous teams than for homogeneous teams.
The motivation to be part of an informal group is influenced mainly by the drive to:?
be inclusive and fair
Bond or socialize
The drive to bond and the dynamics of social identity theory both explain why people?
tend to ignore team norms whenever possible.
have difficulty feeling cohesiveness in teams.
Work better alone than in teams.
Engage in social loafing.
Join informal groups
Compared to individuals working alone, teams have the potential to:?
provide superior customer service
create a more energized workforce.
Make better decisions
Develop better products.
Provide all of these results
In team dynamics, process losses are best described as:?
Productivity losses that occur when team members need to learn a new task
Resources expended towards team development and maintenance
a reduction in profitability
Information lost due to imperfect communication
knowledge lost when a team member leaves the organization.
Brooks's Law says that adding more people to a late software project only makes it later. This law is mainly referring to:
According to Brooks's Law, adding more people to a late software project tends to?
speed the team faster through team development
Require less effort to maintain team dynamics
Increase team cohesiveness.
further delay the project.
Have no effect on team dynamics.
Social loafing is more likely to occur?
In smaller rather than larger teams
When employees believe the team's objective is important
Among employees with collectivist rather than individualistic values
In tasks with high interdependence
When the task is boring.
Keeping the team size sufficiently small and designing tasks such that each team member's performance is measurable are two ways to:
minimize team cohesiveness.
Increase the risk of forming dysfunctional norms.
avoid counterproductive behaviours.
add more roles to the team
Minimize social loafing.
Social loafing can be minimized by doing which of the following?
Making the work less interesting to the social loafer and other team members.
Creating tasks where each member's contribution is pooled.
Monitoring individual performance
Adding more people to the team.
Selecting team members with a highly individualistic value orientation.
Which of the following does NOT minimize social loafing?
Select team members with a collectivist value orientation
Measure individual performance.
Make the work more interesting to the social loafer and other team members
Form larger work teams
The phenomenon where people exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone is called:
A team that achieves its organizational goals, satisfies member needs, and survives in its environment:
is called a task force.
Has not yet reached its highest level of team development
Has too many members for the required task.
Has a strong communication system but inappropriate reward system.
is an effective team
A team is effective when:?
its achieves its goals and maintains the team's survival.
It is able to maintain the team's survival.
it achieves its goals.
It achieves all of these.
Members are able to fulfill their needs through membership in the team.
Which of the following organizational and team environment conditions potentially affects team effectiveness?
All of these are correct.
The effectiveness of teams is affected by:?
All of these conditions apply.
Organizational leadership, organizational structure, and reward systems are:?
Three elements of the organizational and team environment.
three team design features.
Three ways to minimize teambuilding
Three of the main causes of social loafing.
Three of the main sources of team cohesiveness.
The physical layout of the team's workspace encourages:?
It has no effect on the team
Reduced layers of management.
Teams work better when the organizational structure:?
Encourages interdependence with team members rather than through supervisors.
Does not exist
Organizes teams around specialized skills, has many layers of management, and encourages interaction with team members.
Has many rules and policies for members to follow
Organizes teams around specialized skills rather than work processes.
Which of the following statements about teams and task characteristics is FALSE?
Teams are generally more effective when each person's tasks have low interdependence with tasks performed by other team members
Teams usually work better on complex rather than simple tasks.
Teams are generally more effective when tasks are well structured and, therefore, easier to coordinate with other people.
Team members with relatively independent tasks are less likely to coordinate with each other.
People have a greater sense of being on a team when co-workers are linked through reciprocal rather than pooled interdependence
Production employees working on an assembly line usually have which of the following types of task interdependence?
Two company divisions produce completely different products but must seek funding from head office for capital expansion. The relationship between these two divisions would be best described as:?
Pooled interdependence is?
The weakest form of interdependence other than complete independence
The same as reciprocal interdependence.
The best way to avoid social loafing.
None of these statements represent pooled interdependence
Essential for team effectiveness.
Of what importance is task interdependence to teams or team dynamics?
Low task interdependence is necessary to prevent the team from breaking apart.
Low task interdependence motivates employees to work together as a team.
Task interdependence is not important for teams or team dynamics.
High task interdependence weakens team cohesiveness
Jobs with high task interdependence are usually completed more effectively by teams than by individuals working alone.
Employees should almost always be organized into teams when they have:?
High levels of social loafing
A very high level of heterogeneity
In terms of team size, the general rule is that teams
Cannot have more than seven or possibly eight members.
Cannot have fewer than five members.
Can be large or small without any influence on the team's effectiveness.
Should have just enough members with the necessary competencies to complete the work.
Should be as large as possible so as many people are involved to get buy-in.
Compared with small teams, large teams usually?
Have all of these consequences
Have team members who feel more involved in the team's success
Are more effective performing services
have more pooled interdependence
Have more process losses
When forming a team, it is critical that each team member has?
All of these characteristics.
The motivation to work together.
No previous experience working with any of the other members.
Valuable skills that other team members do not know about
The complete set of skills necessary to perform the team's task alone.
Teams are most effective when their members?
collectively possess the required competencies for the task and are motivated to participate in the team
Collectively possess the required competencies for the task.
have the same skills and values.
Are motivated to participate in the team
Have all of these features.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of effective team members that is categorized in your text?
An effective team member ________ and manages the team's work so it is performed efficiently and harmoniously.
"Fault lines" are more likely to occur when teams?
Are highly interdependent
have developed through to the performing stage.
Have very few members
Teams with strong fault lines?
Experience more dysfunctional conflict within the team.
Proceed more quickly through the team development process.
Have better interpersonal relations.
Have team members with similar demographic and professional backgrounds
Tend to have very few members on the team.
A diverse team is better than a homogeneous team?
On complex projects and tasks requiring innovative solutions.
In situations where the team must reach the performing stage of team development quickly.
On tasks requiring a high degree of cooperation
In every organizational activity
Never; heterogeneous teams are always less effective than homogeneous teams.
Research shows that teams with more well-developed ________ systems outperform teams with less well-developed systems.
Which of these statements about team roles is FALSE??
Some team roles are formally prescribed with the job.
A team role is almost always assigned to the same person for the life of the team.
Some team roles are informally fulfilled by various team members.
Some team roles support task completion, whereas other roles support the team's maintenance
Team members often negotiate the preferred roles in the team during the team development process.
A characteristic of team roles is that:?
they usually weaken team cohesiveness
Many roles within formal teams exist informally.
They influence the emotions and attitudes, but not behaviours, of team members
they are always assigned by organizational leaders to specific people in the team.
Most teams can operate effectively without any team roles.
How do norms affect the behaviour of team members?
Norms apply to the attitudes and beliefs, but not the behaviours of team members.
Norms encourage members to try new behaviours not previously sanctioned by the team
Norms help the team regulate and guide the behaviours of its members.
Norms help the team move from the forming to storming stages of team development.
Norms represent the glue or esprit de corps that holds the team together.
Which of these statements about team norms is FALSE??
Some norms develop from a critical event in the team's history
Some norms develop from the beliefs and values that members bring to the team.
Team norms are most strongly influenced by events soon after the team is formed
Norms apply only to thoughts or feelings, not behaviours.
Team members often conform to prevailing norms without direct reinforcement or punishment from other team members.
Several customer service teams in your organization have dysfunctional norms in which they don't proactively ask clients whether they would like to try certain new services. If you were given the opportunity to form a new customer service team, which of the following would remove or avoid forming this dysfunctional norm?
You select employees who do not accept the dysfunctional norm.
All of these actions would remove or avoid forming this dysfunctional norm
If team members are regularly forgetting to ask clients to consider other services, then you would explicitly talk to them about the problems and dangers of this dysfunctional norm.
Soon after the team members are selected, you clearly state the norm that team members should proactively ask clients to consider other services.
You introduce a team-based reward system that explicitly discourages the dysfunctional norm.
If a dysfunctional norm is very deeply ingrained, the best strategy is probably to:?
Supplement the existing group with one or two people having more favourable norms.
Introduce rewards that further support the dysfunctional norm
Disband the group and replace it with people having more favourable norms
Tell the group that corporate leaders are willing to tolerate the dysfunctional norm
The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members is called:
Team cohesiveness tends to be higher?
In diverse teams
When members have limited interaction.
When entry into the team becomes extremely difficult and humiliating.
in smaller teams
When members have limited interaction.
Which of the following has a curvilinear relationship with team cohesiveness, that is, the strongest cohesiveness is neither at very high or very low levels of this factor?
Difficult entry to the team
All of these conditions have a curvilinear relationship with team cohesiveness.
Team cohesiveness can be strengthened in each of the following ways EXCEPT:?
Making the team just large enough to facilitate goal accomplishment.
Creating or sensitizing the team to an external threat to its existence or goal accomplishment
Ensuring that team members have compatible values and goals.
Showing members that the team is necessary to fulfill individual needs
Letting anyone become a team member
Team success, team size, and member similarity are three?
Of the main factors influencing team cohesiveness
Of the main causes of social loafing
Ways to change team norms.
Ways to minimize team-building.
Elements of the organizational and team environment
As team leader, you discover that a competitor is about to develop a similar product that your group is currently developing. What is most likely to happen if you tell your team members about this external threat?
All of these will occur
Individual team members would become more productive through social loafing.
The team would begin to introduce dysfunctional norms.
The team would become more cohesive.
The team would move quickly to the adjourning stage of team development.
Which of the following does NOT occur as team cohesiveness increases?
Team members spend more time together.
Team members experience less stress
Team members are more motivated to maintain their membership in the team.
Team members provide more social support to each other.
Team members experience more dysfunctional conflict among themselves.
What is the relationship between team cohesiveness and team productivity?
Team cohesiveness has no effect on productivity.
The effect of cohesiveness on productivity depends on the group's attitude towards cohesiveness.
Higher team cohesiveness increases productivity.
The effect of team cohesiveness on productivity depends on whether team norms are consistent with organizational goals.
Higher team cohesiveness reduces efficiency.
The collective belief among team members of the team's capability to successfully complete a task refers to:
Member polarization effect.
none of the choices
Which of the following statements about teams characterized by low team efficacy is NOT correct?
They are more likely to experience apathy.
They are more likely to experience uncertainty.
They are more likely to lack direction
They are more likely to experience lethargy
They are more likely to experience heightened anxiety.
Calculus, knowledge, and identification are
Three ways to improve team cohesiveness
Three foundations of trust.
Three types of psychological contract
the three stages of conflict among team members.
The three stages of team development
no longer exists in Canadian companies.
Occurs when one party thinks, feels, and responds like the other party.
is the minimum level of trust to hold a relationship together
has none of these characteristics.
is mainly based on the other party's predictability
The three main foundations of trust are
adaptive, static, and dynamic
Overt, covert, and non-existent.
Identification-based, knowledge-based, and calculus-based.
Relational, transactional, and calculative
relational, deterministic, and autocratic
Which foundation of trust is determined mainly by the other party's predictability?
Employees tend to join a virtual or conventional team with
Complete identification with the values of other team members
Serious doubts about the willingness of other team members to welcome them to the team.
mainly calculus-based trust.
a moderate or high level of trust in their new team members.
No trust in their new team members.
Jane has been working in a quality control team for the past year and has developed a feeling that her values are different from the values of her coworkers. Moreover, some team members seem to be unpredictable because they say one thing but do not actually follow through with their promises. Still, Jane has remained with the company and stayed on this team because she enjoys quality control work and doesn't see any other employment available in this field. What foundation of trust does Jane most likely have in this team?
Jane has no trust at all in this team.
Liam works with four other accounting professionals as a team within one company. Liam doesn't particularly agree with many of his teammates' ideas, such as leaving work early and failing to double-check some account entries. However, he works comfortably with the group because their behaviour and decisions are predictable. What foundation of trust does Liam have in this team?
Liam has no trust at all in this team.
Which foundation of trust exists when an employee has negative expectations about the employer's intentions and believes the employer will adversely affect the employee's well-being?
None of these responses describes the foundation of trust described.
Which foundation of trust usually CANNOT sustain a team's relationship
Neither calculus-based nor identification-based trust can sustain a team's relationship.
Teamwork behaviour refers to activities devoted to enhancing the quality of all of the following EXCEPT:
Efforts to establish patterns of interaction with equipment, or developing team solutions to problems are examples of:
none of the choices.
The team actions that establish or enhance linkages and manage interactions with parties in the external environment refer to:
team boundary spanning
Which of the following is NOT identified as type of team boundary spanning?
Horizontal boundary spanning
Circular boundary spanning
During which stage of team development does a consensus form around the team's objectives?
The first three stages of team development in sequential order are:
Storming, norming, performing.
Adjourning, conforming, performing
Forming, norming, performing.
forming, storming, norming
Forming, conforming, reforming.
Which of the following is NOT a stage of team development
Conforming, performing, and reforming are all:
None of these statements are correct
Stages of team development.
factors that improve team cohesiveness.
Reasons why teams disband.
Types of team norms.
Which of the following is an important phase in the punctuated equilibrium model
The flurry to finish
The midpoint transition
When members shift from viewing the team as something "out there" to something that is part of themselves, they are developing ________.
The team development model does NOT recognize that:
The storming stage follows the forming stage
the storming stage is a type of performing.
Teams really never develop past the norming stage.
some teams remain in a particular stage longer than others.
informal groups do not experience any development process.
The primary objective of team building is to:
help the team discover and remove members guilty of social loafing
Accelerate the team development process
Determine whether the team should accept more tasks
Help the team move from a homogeneous to a more heterogeneous composition.
Encourage all team members to experience lower cohesiveness
Most team building interventions try to:
Help team members find ways to reduce their interdependence
Improve the work environment.
accelerate the team development process
identify the best leader for the team
Select the most appropriate members for the various teams in the organization.
Which common team building activity aims to improve relations among team members?
One problem with team building is that
team building tends to slow down the team development process.
Corporate leaders incorrectly assume team building is a broad-brush solution to general team problems
Organizations rarely provide any team building to employees any more.
none of the known team building interventions has any effect on teams.
all of these are problems with team building.
Team building is often ineffective because
the activity tends to occur on the job, whereas effective team building removes employees from their familiar workplace
He activity occurs over a long period of time, whereas it should occur in a few intense days.
The activity is usually chosen without properly diagnosing the team's needs
Companies provide many types of team building in different situations, whereas all teams should have the same team building activities.
All of these statements explain why team building is often ineffective.
Team building should be viewed as:
A necessary practice for selecting team leaders.
a quick jump-start to the team's development.
A medical inoculation
None of these
Team building should be viewed as all of these.
The textbook warns that team building is usually ineffective when
The team needs to resolve internal conflicts
Team building is not usually ineffective in any of these situations.
the team needs to clarify its performance goals
Eam members need to clarify or reconstruct perceptions of their roles in the team.
Attempting to improve the team development process
Self-directed work teams:
Usually exist as communities of practice.
Consist of a group of employees led by their immediate supervisor.
Have substantial autonomy over the execution of a complete task.
are informal groups.
Are common in Europe but rarely found in North America.
Which of these statements about self-directed work teams (SDTs) is TRUE?
SDTs typically work in a separate building from other employees in the organization.
SDTs represent a very low level of employee involvement
SDTs are responsible for planning, organizing, and controlling work activities, but do so with direct involvement from higher-status supervisors.
SDTs are mainly identified as groups that operate as virtual teams at least once each week.
SDTs are responsible for planning, organizing, and controlling work activities with little or no direct involvement from higher-status supervisors.
Self-directed work teams:
Perform a variety of tasks but have little autonomy regarding how to perform those tasks.
are more common in Canada than in the United States
None of these statements are true.
Rely on supervisors to communicate between the team and senior management.
Have not yet been introduced into Canada
Which of the following allows employees to collectively plan, organize, and control work activities with little or no direct involvement of a higher-status supervisor?
Joint health and safety committees
Self-directed work teams
Virtual teams are best described as:
Cross-functional groups of employees that operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries
formal work teams in which most members do not feel that they are really part of the team.
groups of employees from different departments who are located near each other.
groups of employees who are almost (virtually) identical to each other in skills and values.
Informal groups that meet only in cyberspace
Dependence on information technology and lack of co-location represent two factors that distinguish
managers from employees.
virtual teams from conventional teams.
task forces from permanent teams
Self-directed work teams from task forces
Employees with high collectivist values from employees with low collectivist values.
Two features that distinguish virtual teams from conventional teams are
Lack of co-location and dependence on information technology.
Size and heterogeneity.
joint optimization and primary work unit.
Norms and trust.
None of these factors distinguishes virtual teams from conventional teams.
Globalization and knowledge management have made ________ necessary for organizations to remain competitive.
None of these are necessary as a result of globalization and knowledge management.
The increasing number of virtual teams is partly due to:
greater social loafing in team environments.
increased workforce diversity
increased emphasis on business ethics
Better information technology
Increased preference for employees to work alone rather than interdependently with others.
Virtual teams are increasingly necessary because
computer networks make distances among people less relevant
Companies are becoming globalized, and employees are spread around the world.
Companies have shifted from production-based to knowledge-based work
The cost of office space is a prohibitive expense
people perform better when they work alone
Virtual teams are becoming increasingly common because of:
the shift from production-based to knowledge-based work.
Improvements in information technology.
The need to minimize workplace violence.
All of these factors have increased the presence of virtual teams
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