Module 9: Complex Patterns of Inheritance

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In this module, we consider modes of inheritance that are more complex than the simple Mendelian model that was explored in the previous module. We will look at traits involving incomplete dominance, more than two alleles per gene, codominance, and ones connected to the sex chromosomes. Solving genetics problems for each of these requires a different approach than we used for the autosomal genes that had just two alleles and expressed complete dominance.

  • 1
    In the snap dragon (flower), a cross between a homozygous parent with white flowers (CWCW) and a homozygous parent with red flowers (CRCR) will produce offspring with pink flowers (CRCW). This patter of inheritance is called what?
  • 2
    According to the picture. What percentage chance does the child have of being CRCW?
    According to the picture. What percentage chance does the child have of being CRCW?
  • 3
    What is codominance?
  • 4
    The ABO blood-type system in humans is an example of what?
  • 5
    If there are 3 alleles in the ABO blood-type system in humans, how many possible paired-combinations are there?
  • 6
    Can you use blood type to determine paternity?
  • 7
    Suppose that a child is blood type O and his mother is type B. Can a man with blood type A be the father? (The woman has IBi blood type and the man has IAi).
    Suppose that a child is blood type O and his mother is type B. Can a man with blood type A be the father? (The woman has IBi blood type and the man ha
  • 8
    What is a universal recipient?
  • 9
    What is a universal donor?
  • 10
    People with type O blood can receive what types of blood?
    People with type O blood can receive what types of blood?
  • 11
    What blood type can a type A recipient not receive?
    What blood type can a type A recipient not receive?
  • 12
    What blood type can type B recipients receive?
  • 13
    What blood type can type AB recipients not receive?
    What blood type can type AB recipients not receive?
  • 14
    What is an X-linked trait?
  • 15
    True or False: X-linked disorders affect males more often than females.
  • 16
    Suppose that a woman is normal (does not have the disease), but a carrier for a recessive X-linked disease and a man is also normal (does not have the disease). Let's also suppose that we are talking about a disease controlled by a single gene with just two alleles, one of which is completely dominant (N) over the other one (n). What are the chances that they will have a son with the disease?
    Suppose that a woman is normal (does not have the disease), but a carrier for a recessive X-linked disease and a man is also normal (does not have the
  • 17
    The occurrence of a trait, such as congenital deafness, can be best tracked over time by using what?
  • 18
    Notice that Ruben is represented by a square that is completely filled in. That means that he expressed the recessive congenital deafness trait (he was deaf), so we can indicate his alleles as "dd." Isabelle, represented by an open circle, did not have congenital hearing loss.Both "DD" or "Dd" would stand for an individual that is not deaf, but given that we know that at least one of their children was born with congenital deafness, she must have had the deafness allele. Thus, her genotype must be "Dd," so we can fill in the "?" in the figure with a "d" allele. What are the chances that Ruben and Isabelle's children will be born deaf?
    Notice that Ruben is represented by a square that is completely filled in. That means that he expressed the recessive congenital deafness trait (he wa
  • 19
    What is phenotypic plasticity?
  • 20
    If environmental factors have a strong influence, is the phenotypic plasticity high or low?
  • 21
    What is the genotype of a pink snapdragon flower?
  • 22
    What is the genotype of a red snapdragon flower?
  • 23
    Why can you not combine the genotypes CRCR and CRCW into one phenotypic ratio?
  • 24
    What are the two genotypes that cause the type B phenotype?
  • 25
    What phenotype will be expressed in the heterozygote when it comes to the Rh factor?
  • 26
    When does the arctic fox produce the least amount of melanin?

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